Fresco: This technique consists of direct application of water-soluble pigments, which in most cases are metal oxides, on freshly laid plaster. With the setting of the plaster, a chemical reaction occurs between carbon dioxide present in the air and hydrated lime to produce a very stable, water-resistant calcium carbonate. This compound acts as a very strong binder of the used pigments. The resultant painting hence becomes an integral part of the wall and as long as the plaster itself remains undamaged, the painting will be preserved as well. It is necessary to work quickly when using this technique for if the plaster sets before the pigments are applied these will never bind with it. In the cases of most of the works presented here, the technique of fresco is used mainly for the underpainting of the general outline while details are done a secco - meaning with the use of colours with their own binders.

Mural figure painting: Depiction of objects, artefacts, human and animal figures or plants in no predefined manner directly on the walls with the illusion achieved by surfaces of various shapes and colours. Used since the prehistoric era. Despite having been suppressed for limited time periods by some cultures, afterwards explored with an even greater fervour.

Mural figure drawing: Depiction of objects, artefacts, human and animal figures or plant in no predefined manner directly on the walls with the illusion achieved by linear traces or separate points. Surfaces are indicated by hatching. As compared to painting, drawing is usually monochromatic and hence less difficult and expensive.

Trompe l'œil: French for "deceive the eye". This term is used to denote a painting that aims to imitate something, whether it is a specific material - such as wood, marble, granite, steel, glass, fabric, an illusory perspective - such as foreshortening, arcs, niches, stairs, or light and shadow and other visual percepts.

One-layered stencil: A reproductive creative tool with the use of which a very impressive and rich effect can be achieved with relatively low financial and skill demands. That it why this technique has been widely and successfully used for decoration in most architectural styles. Typical characteristics consist of repetition and symmetry.

Two-layered stencil: A combination of two one-layered stencils where the motive of one layer complements the other. Used for reproduction of closed shapes such as annulus which cannot be created with the use of one-layered stencil, or for creation of two-coloured ornaments.

Three-layered stencil: Used for multicoloured complex ornaments that are either repeated regularly or are symmetrical. Often, one layer is used to create the basic shape of the ornament, the second one for highlights and the third one for shadows.

Shaded stencil: In many cases the stencil is used only as an outline which is then completed by freehand. This facilitates the complicated measuring process and guarantees that the same ratio is always preserved. The completion often, but not always, consists of shading. The ornaments remain the same but they cast shadows in different directions according to their position in relation to the source of light. (Zámek dsc07436.jpg)

Render - stencil: With the use of a stencil, anything can be reproduced, with no exception for ornaments protruding above a surface or only differing in the refraction of light. Decorative laths and ledges created with the use of profile gauges for plasterers are not what this section refers to.
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Texture - sponge painting: The prints of various objects - such as combs, brushes, cloths, pieces of crumpled paper, sea sponges - are successfully used to create an irregular effect on the entire decorated area, which serves to interrupt the uniformity and relative boringness of monochromatic walls. It is just the texture created with the use of a sea sponge what combined with glaze, which helps to emphasise the print even more, gives the walls a soft, silky appearance.

Applied patina: With the use of a slowly setting glaze irregularly washed off after the application before having fully set, patina effect is created to imitate a worn out ancient painting. It is possible to tint the glaze by a pigment which influences the entire atmosphere of the decorated room.

Venetian plaster: This term is now used in reference to a wall and ceiling finish done with the use of a smoothed, usually lime-based putty. This material can as well be tinted into various shades. A stainless steel trowel is used for smoothing and for creating a pattern of variously pressed and shiny surfaces that help achieve the impression of polished marble on the walls.

Combined technique: In vast majority of cases, more techniques are used at the same time when decorating a room - figure depictions are framed with shaded stencil and the entire composition is then patinated with glaze, venetian plaster is enriched with golden ornaments and additionally waxed to improve its resistance.

Special effects: In this category are included effects achieved with the use of modern colours that adapt to different light conditions, of gold, silver and their imitations as well as of glossy and matte varnishes. Another item in this category are tricks on perception when one scene presents two and more different things in dependence on the context.

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